E-mail viruses: The message is the virus!

by Rich Pasco

Reposting without checking accuracy is like sharing gossip 
you heard without checking to see if it is true.
” — Brad Forbes

Would you deliberately forward a virus to all your friends? “Of course not,” you say? Well, many people do that when they unthinkingly follow the instructions in an important-sounding e-mail message that says “forward to everyone you know.”

One definition of a virus is “That which tricks its host into making more copies of itself.” This can be as true of an e-mail message as it can of a computer program or a biological virus. I call an e-mail message with this effect an e-mail virus. Fortunately, an e-mail virus is easy to spot:

  1. Says “forward to everyone you know” or “this is really true” or similar.
  2. Has an urgent-sounding warning, a heart-wrenching plea, an offer of something for nothing, or a heart-warming story.
  3. Has technical-sounding language with details glossed over.
  4. Gives no reference to contact the original author for more information (phone number, e-mail address, etc.)
  5. Seeks credibility by naming known institutions, publications, etc., but lacks details (contact persons, publication dates, web pages).
  6. Uses terms like “yesterday” or “this week” in an un-dated message.
  7. Promises you good luck if you forward it, or threatens bad luck if you don't.
If you receive such a message and cannot verify its truth, please do not aid in its propagation, even if you trust the person who sent it to you. Remember, he too may have been duped. If you forward it because “it just might be true” then you waste a lot of people's time and possibly embarrass yourself by demonstrating your gullibility.

Nevertheless, you should always practice “safe computing.” Remember, to open any executable file (whether received as an e-mail attachment or otherwise) means to surrender complete control of your computer system to its distant (and unknown) author. Even if you know and trust the person who apparently sent it to you, please consider that his e-mail account may be under the control of malicious software (malware).

The problem is, when we get urgent-sounding e-mail messages from people we trust, we tend to trust the e-mail without considering that they too may have been taken in by misinformation or be victims of malware.

Incredible Photographs

Here's what I do whenever I receive an incredible picture. I don't believe the caption attributed to it. Instead: I right-click on it and choose either “Copy Image Location.” (if it's on the web) or “Save Image As” (if it's in an e-mail). Then I go to Google Images and click on the camera icon to choose “Search by Image.” I either paste the URL into the search box or upload the image I just saved and, Voila! The whole history of the photo appears before my eyes.


Even if an item sounds plausible, and even if you agree with its spirit, and even if it says “please share” or “please forward,” or “please copy and paste” you still should not share or forward or copy-and-paste it without first doing some independent research to confirm that the assumptions it makes are still true (if they ever were). Failing to do that research, and forwarding items just because they seem compelling, is how misinformation spreads. There have always been rumors, gossip, urban legends and old-wives' tales, but the Internet now makes it possible to spread misinformation faster than ever, and it is imperative that we all do our homework before passing items along.

Relevant web sites

Articles about Fake News sites

Urban legend collections


Specific e-mail viruses

Parodies and Caricatures

Index to all of Rich Pasco's articles on e-mail and viruses

Rich Pasco's home page

Copyright © 2001-2002 Richard C. Pasco. All rights reserved.